A number of years ago I put together what I thought might be a good period fruitcake recipe. I never got around to making it, so, since we’re having a Sugar & Spice & Everything Nice theme for culinary night this week here’s an updated recipe and my finished version of it.
I originally got the idea for this from Jennifer Strobel, so again, many thanks go to her.
Qurabiya (sometimes spelled Ghorabiye) is a type of almond cookie, likely originating in Persia, which had spread to the Ottoman court by at least the 15th century. I haven’t been able to find any remaining period Qurabiya recipes, so instead this is being built on a lot of conjecture and various “traditional” and modern recipes. From what I can tell from a few different sources it was a cookie made from egg white, almond, sugar, and rosewater. Modernly different fats and oils as well as other nuts are added to the recipe. Every recipe is different and all have various flavourings. A modern version that seems quite similar to the references I’ve found is this one for Iranian Almond Cookies. The cookie spread west early and several types of cookie (such as in Greece) have names that are very similar. But what is interesting is to compare early French macarons:
I wrote this article for Tournaments Illuminated and it was recently published in Issue 200, Fourth Quarter 2016 p.15-19.
Early Tudor Rapier: The teaching of the rapier in London before 1580 by the Masters of Defence examines the history of the rapier in Tudor England and how early it was accepted by the nobility, gentry, and yeoman classes. The rapier was being used by the nobility and gentry at least by the 1540s and was being formally taught to and by the yeoman class through the Masters of Defence of London by 1568, a year before Bonetti arrived in England.
Here’s an excerpt:
Discussions about the origin of the use of the rapier in England frequently begin by focusing on the very late 16th C. This makes sense, as two Italian-authored rapier manuals were published in England in the 1590s: His True Arte of Defence by Giacomo Di Grassi was translated from his 1570 Italian version and published in 1594, and Vincentio Saviolo, His Practise was published in 1595. George Silver’s 1599 Paradoxes of Defence, with its brief discussions of the rapier, round out the decade. Silver’s work also allows us to track back the teaching of rapier in England to Italian fencing master Rocco Bonetti and his successors: Jeronimo, who was also likely the translator of Di Grassi, and the aforementioned Saviolo. Dating the history of the rapier in England to Bonetti’s school is fairly common (Lennox 38).
But Silver ignores that the teaching of rapier was already established in England before Bonetti arrived there in 1569 (McCollum), and well before there is confirmation of his school being in operation in 1576 (Cook 72). Accounts from the 1630s set the time when the rapier replaced the sword and buckler as the weapon of choice for civilian combat as being “20. yeare of Queene Elizabeth” (Norman 24), or about 1578. But in order for a weapon to become popular there has to have been training beforehand, and that is where the Masters of Defence of London are key.
It’s my hope that this article will bring more context for those with an English persona and who have an interest in the rapier, as well as those wanting more information on the Masters of Defence.
At the Apprentices Competition at Samhain we had to provide a one page documentation. Now considering that that is virtually impossible for me I did a long form which you can find here, and a short form. Which is this one.
After getting feedback at the Unfinished Projects at Bitter End’s Harvest Feast, I made a new attempt and entered it in the Apprentices Competition at Samhain. As I am not an apprentice I asked Mistress Maiosara to sponsor me and she graciously did. Because this post is so long, there’s also a short version.
There’s quite a history of sugar paste (modernly called gum paste), with recipes in English going back to at least 1558 when Alessio’s Secreti (1555) was translated into English. Recipes originating in English start appearing in 1567.